Pre_GI Island

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n1_4mer:GRV/n1_4mer:RV = (Global Relative Variance of OU patterns) / (Local Relative Variance of OU patterns)

n0_4mer:D = Distance between local and global OU patterns

n0_4mer:PS = Distance between 2 strands of same DNA molecule

Selected loci indicated by large D, increased GRV associated with decreased RV and moderate increase in PS

NC_010723: Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

NCBI: NC_010723

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

#StartEndLengthIsland TextGRV_RVDPSNeighboursClusterSub ClusterBLASTNKey Word ConfirmationOther DB ConfirmationDownload Island
11*1759917599Island text7.6240724.553345.5497Neighbours21BLASTN1.gbk
2173280*22135248073Island text5.0898320.272235.4251Neighbours21BLASTN+173280.gbk
3223935*27475150817Island text3.4991721.060634.8285Neighbours21BLASTN+223935.gbk
429895431770918756Island text3.2067618.077234.9068Neighbours21BLASTN+298954.gbk
537174139352221782Island text2.6491618.721730.2121Neighbours21BLASTN+371741.gbk
6420025*44661626592Island text5.9715824.077944.7898Neighbours21BLASTN420025.gbk
7485874*50809922226Island text3.0883818.072136.2833Neighbours21BLASTN485874.gbk
857525460199426741Island text3.413618.863931.2029Neighbours21BLASTN+575254.gbk
962292864247719550Island text2.7927218.465832.0482Neighbours21BLASTN622928.gbk
1080121582512923915Island text3.4714917.550434.8504Neighbours21BLASTN801215.gbk
1183387085686522996Island text2.909918.456932.1483Neighbours21BLASTN833870.gbk
12915697*93892123225Island text3.5098516.713332.8176Neighbours21BLASTN+915697.gbk
131014334103372419391Island text3.1006717.789428.3835Neighbours21BLASTN1014334.gbk
141084000110630222303Island text2.653817.935332.5314Neighbours21BLASTN+1084000.gbk
151133163*115110717945Island text2.0878417.6127.1349Neighbours21BLASTN1133163.gbk
161379256140062221367Island text2.362118.717230.3828Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 1379256.gbk
171465097149459929503Island text2.6620621.202230.9246Neighbours21BLASTN+1465097.gbk
181967106199111924014Island text3.5637618.731832.8907Neighbours21BLASTN1967106.gbk
192082750210459921850Island text2.5931719.93831.0987Neighbours21BLASTN2082750.gbk
202231834225453622703Island text2.3246617.002127.08Neighbours21BLASTN+2231834.gbk
212269372228916119790Island text2.5722118.600429.923Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 2269372.gbk
222735196275388618691Island text3.0429517.901929.6382Neighbours21BLASTN2735196.gbk
232873886289437620491Island text2.1441818.855426.4758Neighbours21BLASTN+2873886.gbk
243133302315353220231Island text2.4469818.154231.7944Neighbours21BLASTN3133302.gbk
253395187*343021835032Island text6.9007820.721139.9616Neighbours21BLASTN+3395187.gbk
263434000345694922950Island text2.8503317.409429.6199Neighbours21BLASTN3434000.gbk
273499291*352129922009Island text2.2140919.314632.2157Neighbours21BLASTN+3499291.gbk
283530000*357960049601Island text7.6751627.680446.1248Neighbours21BLASTN+3530000.gbk