Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:3499291 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
349929135006461356pts system sucrose-specific iibc componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35011493501310162hypothetical protein
35014673501871405hypothetical protein
35020823502549468hypothetical protein
35029873503754768tryptophan synthase alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
350370835048561149NADPH-dependent butanol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35049673505761795hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35057123505825114hypothetical protein
35057843506539756uridine phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35065393507489951kinase PfkB familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35075053508071567isochorismatase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35080913509005915inner-membrane translocatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
350900535100661062sugar ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351006335116101548ribose import ATP-binding protein RbsAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351163235128161185putative basic membrane lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35128823513610729transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35140783514803726transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3515098351517275tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontology
35154933516149657hypothetical protein
351617335185452373P-type ATPase - metal cation transportQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351884435195637201-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351971935212991581ATP-dependent RNA helicase DbpAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP