Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:3133302 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
313330231351611860cholineethanolamine kinase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31358693136414546hypothetical protein
31367823137405624hypothetical protein
313770131406852985putative collagenolytic proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314113431431912058surface protein PspCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314349231457052214surface protein PspCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31460513146320270putative anaerobic ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31465753147402828phosphatase YidAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31477053148535831pyridoxine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31486703148981312thioredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31490923149958867pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31504673151264798histidinol phosphate phosphatase HisJ familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315147831535322055membrane assosiated methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein with hamp domainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP