Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:1379256 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
137925613811391884hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13816241382097474MerR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13825181383327810MoaF proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13835031383625123transposase and inactivated derivativeQuickGO ontology
13837571383876120hypothetical protein
13842041384464261hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13845791384854276hypothetical protein
13849931385388396hypothetical protein
13862101386995786electron transfer flavoprotein beta-subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13870171387955939electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138823813897881551L-lactate permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138994313913791437oxidase FAD-bindingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139155413926931140acyl-coa dehydrogenase short-chain specificQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139293213946711740ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139502813972202193catalaseperoxidase HPIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13978751398852978PTS system mannosefructosesorbose family IIB componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13988881399691804PTS system sorbose-specific iic componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13996781400622945PTS system mannosefructosesorbose family IID componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP