Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:223935 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2239352249991065DNA integrity scanning protein DisAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225043225441399hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2257042267981095pintram domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2268172274916752-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2278142295261713prolyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2295462309581413cysteinyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
231008231433426ribonuclease IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
231439232311873RNA methyltransferase TrmH family group 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
232334232846513tetracycline resistance proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
232933233553621RNA polymerase sigma-H factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23363123370676tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontology
2337652349581194translation elongation factor TuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
235121235270150ribosomal protein L33QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
235320235550231preprotein translocase SecE subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
235588236109522transcription terminationantitermination factor NusGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236187236612426ribosomal protein L11QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236667237356690ribosomal protein L1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237567238070504ribosomal protein L10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238128238490363ribosomal protein L7L12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2388562425813726DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2426032461363534DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
246433246810378ribosomal protein S12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
246956247426471ribosomal protein S7QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2475052495712067translation elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2496642508571194translation elongation factor TuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
251339251647309ribosomal protein S10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
251720252349630ribosomal protein L3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252375252995621ribosomal protein L4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252995253291297ribosomal protein L23QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253351254184834ribosomal protein L2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254252254530279ribosomal protein S19QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254551254886336ribosomal protein L22QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254905255570666ribosomal protein S3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255588256022435ribosomal protein L16QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256022256234213ribosomal protein L29QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256258256512255ribosomal protein S17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256541256909369ribosomal protein L14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256925257239315ribosomal protein L24QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257263257802540ribosomal protein L5QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257819258004186ribosomal protein S14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258035258433399ribosomal protein S8QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25850625904854350S ribosomal protein L6QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
259067259426360ribosomal protein L18QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
259446259943498ribosomal protein S5QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
259955260134180ribosomal protein L30QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
260158260598441ribosomal protein L15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2606002618801281preprotein translocase SecY subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
261905262552648adenylate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
262556263305750methionine aminopeptidase type IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
263394263675282hypothetical proteinBLASTP
263683263901219translation initiation factor IF-1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
263955264068114ribosomal protein L36QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
264274264642369ribosomal protein S13pS18eQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
264662265054393ribosomal protein S11QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265082265702621ribosomal protein S4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
265814266761948DNA-directed RNA polymerase alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
266774267115342ribosomal protein L17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
267368268219852cobalt import ATP-binding protein CbiO 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268204269061858cobalt import ATP-binding protein CbiO 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269153269956804cobalt ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269973270707735tRNA pseudouridine synthase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
270867271301435ribosomal protein L13QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
271329271721393ribosomal protein S9QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2720532736661614NaPi-cotransporter family proteinPhoU family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274089274751663N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase CwlDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP