Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:622928 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
622928623533606TetR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontology
623802624725924hypothetical proteinBLASTP
6248046263031500hypothetical proteinBLASTP
6263066274601155putative oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6275826287481167hypothetical proteinBLASTP
6289516309061956signal-transduction and transcriptional-control proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6311606322331074oxidoreductase zinc-binding dehydrogenase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
632254633141888conserved electron-transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6331446345351392glutamate synthase NADPH homotetramericQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6348736365821710methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
636788637474687peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase cyclophilin-typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
637556638263708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
638577639092516GnaT-family acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
639295640161867oxidoreductase short chain dehydrogenasereductase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
640463641188726putative arylesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6414916424779873-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP