Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:2082750 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207750820827695262hypothetical proteinBLASTP
208275020841651416hypothetical proteinBLASTP
208416520865672403hypothetical proteinBLASTP
208687520879991125hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20882472088957711glycerol uptake facilitator proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20890912090248115813-propanediol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20903832090808426DhaG proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20908262091338513ATPcobIalamin adenosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20913602091719360glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209171920935571839glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20935852094007423coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20940292094604576propanediol utilization dehydratase medium subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209462220962861665coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20966012097335735DNA-bindng response regulator AraC familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209735120985921242sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209894321022573315hypothetical proteinBLASTP
210238521035271143divergent AAA domain familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21036902103977288DNA polymerase beta domain protein regionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21039832104420438putative nucleotidyltransferase substrate binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP