Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:833870 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
833870834712843flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
835500835901402flagellar basal-body rod protein FlgBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
835916836323408flagellar basal-body rod protein FlgCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
836337836663327flagellar hook-basal body complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8366888382501563flagellar M-ring protein FliFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8382578392731017flagellar motor switch protein FliGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
839257840042786flagellar assembly proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8400548413611308flagellar protein export ATPase FliIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
841396841839444flagellar export protein FliJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8418468431501305putative flagellar hook-length control protein FliKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
843162844127966flagellar hook assembly protein FlgDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
844131844520390flagellar operon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8446638457631101flagellar hook protein FlgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8459608470541095flagellar hook protein FlgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
847150847341192hypothetical proteinBLASTP
847357848160804chemotaxis protein MotAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
848163848906744chemotaxis protein MotBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
848912849391480flagellar basal body-associated protein FliLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
849405849791387putative flagellar biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
849794850573780flagellar biosynthetic protein FliPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
850585850854270flagellar biosynthetic protein FliQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8508728527041833flagellar biosynthetic proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8527348548002067flagellar biosynthesis protein FlhAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8548008560111212flagellar biosynthetic protein FlhFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
856005856865861ATPases involved in chromosome partitioning MinD familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP