Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:2269372 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
226937222708891518hypothetical proteinBLASTP
227090822726531746putative phage endopeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22726502273324675putative phage tail componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227334022768103471tail tape measure proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22768602277123264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22771262277449324hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22774522278033582hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22780362278356321hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22783492278738390hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22787382279073336hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22790482279377330Gp6 proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227939222805881197mAjor capsid protein aQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22805882281379792peptidase S14 ClpPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228138122825291149phage portal protein HK97 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228257822842331656putative phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22842142284768555hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22848712285197327Gp54 proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22851852285502318hypothetical protein
22856562286198543site-specific recombinase phage integrase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22861952286431237hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22864752286615141hypothetical protein
22866092286998390hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22879232288141219hypothetical protein
22881672288352186hypothetical protein
22883722288584213hypothetical protein
22887152288981267hypothetical protein
22890062289161156hypothetical protein