Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:915697 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9156979168211125RNA polymerase sigma factor RpoDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
916914917600687Bcl-2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
917718918509792hypothetical proteinBLASTP
918566918802237hypothetical protein
918941919230290Bacterial RNase P class AQuickGO ontology
919288919749462phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
919767920132366transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontology
920387920896510hypothetical proteinBLASTP
921657922073417hypothetical proteinBLASTP
922063922218156hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9222199235291311sheath tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
923548924015468hypothetical proteinBLASTP
924315924728414hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9249249268731950hypothetical proteinBLASTP
926873927535663peptidoglycan-binding LysMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
927547928518972hypothetical proteinBLASTP
928522928851330phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
928844929251408phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9292549303121059hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9303139323942082hypothetical proteinBLASTP
932396933010615hypothetical proteinBLASTP
933025933825801hypothetical proteinBLASTP
933842934177336hypothetical protein
934170934304135phage protein XkdX familyQuickGO ontology
934418934618201UviB homologous proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
934757935551795glycosyl hydrolase family 25QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
935699935863165surface lipoprotein-related proteinQuickGO ontology
935886936452567acetyltransferase gnat familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9368199378651047hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9378849389211038hypothetical proteinBLASTP