Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:2873886 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28738862874431546hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28748062875696891hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28759782876136159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28765052877350846DegV family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28774812878191711purine nucleoside phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28782462878653408cytidine deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28788672879820954ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287982228809761155ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288097328824961524galactosemethyl galactoside import ATP-binding protein MglAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288273928838421104membrane lipoprotein tmpcQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288401528850341020transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288576928869381170aspartate aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28869352887414480transcriptional regulator AsnC familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288816728901221956pullulanase type IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28904802890593114hypothetical proteinBLASTP
289062028921161497sodiumproline symporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28923552892642288hypothetical proteinBLASTP
289295228943761425argininelysine decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP