Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:801215 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
800227801222996flagellar motor switch protein FliMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8012158023661152flagellar motor switch protein FliNQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
802725803003279negative regulator of flagellin synthesisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
803007803417411hypothetical proteinBLASTP
8035098053231815flagellar hook-associated protein FlgKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8053698065771209flagellar hook-associated protein 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
806595807020426flagellar assembly factor FliWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
807025807240216carbon storage regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
807427807783357flaG family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
807804808100297hypothetical proteinBLASTP
808112808489378flagellar protein FliSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8085098105962088flagellar cap protein FliDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
810601810927327hypothetical proteinBLASTP
811036811215180hypothetical proteinBLASTP
811632812444813flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8125898144931905glycosyl transferase family 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
814704815516813flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8156808174791800hypothetical proteinBLASTP
817508817855348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
8179268191371212hypothetical proteinBLASTP
819262820209948domain of unknown function familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
820206820889684putative hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
820946821728783spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein SpsFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
821764822513750CalS11QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
822586823464879methyltransferase type 12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8235348251291596hypothetical proteinBLASTP