Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:173280 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1732801747461467MazG family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
174948175226279DNA-binding protein HUQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
175278175538261S4 domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
175671175964294sporulation protein YabPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
176018176374357spore cortex biosynthesis protein YabQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
176453176746294cell division proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
176802177218417RNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17745317754189tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17756017763778tRNA-MetQuickGO ontology
17764717772377tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17772817781891tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17783817791578tRNA-MetQuickGO ontology
17792517800177tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17800617809691tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1786801810612382stage II sporulation protein EQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1812001826061407tRNAIle-lysidine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
182612183151540hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1832251850301806putative Cell division protease FtsH homologQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1852521869221671formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
187044187817774type III pantothenate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
187823188788966tRNA-dihydrouridine synthase BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
188976189680705hypothetical proteinBLASTP
189795190277483transcription elongation factor GreAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1903221918271506lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19206719214377tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19247719255377tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19288719296377tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
193163193882720hypothetical protein
1940161954071392hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1954401966001161hypothetical proteinBLASTP
196622197413792Cna protein B-type domainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
197592197735144hypothetical protein
1978021991931392glycyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1993812007571377UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2009042019081005putative lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202407203913150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20403720411478tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20411720419377tRNA-IleQuickGO ontology
204301207210291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2072692073851175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20739120746878tRNA-PheQuickGO ontology
20746920754274tRNA-CysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207806208753948magnesium and cobalt transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209030209506477hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2095672107271161amidohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
210785210898114hypothetical protein
210888211058171putative CsfB proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
211211211888678thymidylate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
212003212335333protein from nitrogen regulatory protein P-IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
212347213279933DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tauQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
213283214191909PSP1 domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
214336214506171hypothetical proteinBLASTP
214638215276639hypothetical proteinBLASTP
215468215923456transcriptional regulator CtsRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
215938216513576McsAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2164972175101014putative ATPguanido phosphotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2175412199852445negative regulator of genetic competence ClpCmecBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
220414221352939putative thioredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP