Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:2735196 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27351962736074879510-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27363442737294951UDP-GlcNAcundecaprenyl-P GlcNAc 1-P transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
273765227394001749nucleotidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27397472740388642V-type ATPase D subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274039227417711380V-type ATPase B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274176427435421779V-type ATPase A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27435602743871312V-type ATPase G subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274386427448651002ATP synthase CAC39 subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27448782745468591ATP synthase E31 kDa subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27455032745988486V-type ATPase K subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274600227479361935V-type ATPase I subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27479532748279327V-type sodium ATP synthase subunit GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
274849627501601665radical SAM domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27501352750698564hypothetical proteinBLASTP
275088927521901302hypothetical proteinBLASTP
275238727538861500stage V sporulation protein BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP