Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:1465097 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
146509714667281632beta-hexosaminidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
146702514681731149alcohol dehydrogenase iron-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14684411469277837transcriptional regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
146985014709471098membrane spanning proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14709471471213267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
14712381471534297bacterial microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14715611471866306propanediol utilization protein PduAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
147194214734321491aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
147348814760282541formate C-acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14761961477149954glycyl-radical enzyme activating family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14771891477542354ethanolamine utilization protein EutS homologQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14775391477979441GTP-binding protein EutPPduV familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14779971478665669hypothetical proteinBLASTP
14786471479492846ethanolamine utilization protein EutJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14795081479810303microcompartments proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14798071480070264ethanolamine utilization protein EutNcarboxysome structural protein CcmlQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
148008814814161329respiratory-chain NADH dehydrogenase domain 51 kda subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14814181481966549microcompartments proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14820241482686663transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14827091483467759bacterial microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
148350614850651560acetaldehyde dehydrogenase acetylatingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14850661485716651propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14857731486063291bacterial microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14864491486838390iron-binding protein hemerythrinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
148734014887341395inner membrane protein YicOQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
148915114901761026putative iron chelate uptake ABC transporter solute-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
149017614912581083Fe uptake system integral membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14912581492094837iron chelate uptake ABC transporter FeCT family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14921841492330147hypothetical protein
149241614935191104cold-shock deAd box protein aQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14941411494293153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
14944311494583153hypothetical protein