Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:2231834 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22318342232352519molecular chaperone DnaJ familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
223254322349812439ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22353802236177798lysozyme M1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22362342236500267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22365432236794252phage holinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22370122237179168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
223750322385551053YkwD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
223894022424583519pyruvateferredoxin flavodoxin oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22428702243277408hypothetical proteinBLASTP
224333022444661137glycerate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224451722457731257GntP family permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224593922470031065sugar diacid utilization regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22476072247762156hypothetical proteinBLASTP
224794022492261287putative multidrug efflux pump outer membrane proteinQuickGO ontology
224928122504771197putative ABC-2 type transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225047722517301254hypothetical proteinBLASTP
225174122527991059putative secretion protein HlyD family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22528272253312486transcriptional regulator MarR familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22537632254536774hypothetical proteinBLASTP