Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:1 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12714971371chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
175828581101DNA polymerase III beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28973103207S4 domain protein YaaAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
317542601086DNA replication and repair protein RecFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42754535261hypothetical proteinBLASTP
457164781908DNA gyrase B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
650190502550DNA gyrase A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
956911075150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1130414213291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14273143891175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
143931446977tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
144731455078tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1463315136504putative HD domainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15175156875133H domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15700170911392FAD-dependent oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1711017346237hypothetical proteinBLASTP