Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:575254 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5752545762671014putative iron compound ABC transporter periplasmic iron compound-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5762905773211032HmuU proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
577321578076756iron chelate uptake ABC transporter FeCT family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5783215803572037penicillin-binding protein 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5806735823161644putative ggdef domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
582407582571165hypothetical protein
5826145843561743hypothetical sigma-54-dependent transcriptional regulator YgeVQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5847375859361200M20DapE family protein YgeYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5859875871801194probable carbamoyltransferase YgeWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
587380588312933carbamate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5884415896491209diaminopropionate ammonia-lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5896775910081332proteoglycanQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
591217591366150hypothetical proteinBLASTP
5914445928051362hydroxydechloroatrazine ethylaminohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5928445939321089dihydroorotate dehydrogenase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
594070594447378putative endoribonuclease L-PSPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
594489595043555hypothetical proteinBLASTP
5951035964941392dihydropyrimidinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5973815987781398xanthine permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5988846014452562selenium-dependent molybdenum hydroxylase 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
601521601994474cytidinedeoxycytidylate deaminase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP