Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:485874 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4858744870551182acetyl-CoA acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
487935488300366hypothetical proteinBLASTP
488302488982681ATP synthase F0 A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
489014489229216ATP synthase F0 C subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
489280489759480ATP synthase F0 B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
489762490301540ATP synthase F1 delta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4903124918261515ATP synthase F1 alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
491867492718852ATP synthase F1 gamma subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4927344941251392ATP synthase F1 beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
494139494543405ATP synthase F1 epsilon subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
494703495341639hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4953994966611263UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4967794978161038stage II sporulation protein DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
497975498700726conserved membrane-associated proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
498791499045255sporulation transcriptional regulator spoiiidQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4991255001591035Rod shape-determining protein MreBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
500203500724522putative sporulation protein YyaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
500837501247411hypothetical proteinBLASTP
50140950149587tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontology
50150050157778tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
50159750167175tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontology
50168050176485tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
50177150184878tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
50186950194375tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontology
50195050203485tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5023985035731176methionine adenosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5040445062632220helicase RecDTraA familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5062985073111014hypothetical proteinBLASTP
507287507940654competence protein FQuickGO ontologyBLASTP