Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:3395187 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
339518733970041818sulfatase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
339735933991791821sulfatase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
339931134008461536aminobenzoyl-glutamate transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34010853401543459acetobutylicum phosphotransbutyrylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34017143402151438hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34024833402881399putative lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3402912340298978tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3402994340307077tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
340307934031951175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34032533406162291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34063913407897150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
340852334096291107glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase GlgD subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
340965134108111161glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341090934127231815amylopullulanaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341289234153332442glycogen phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341536434168001437glycogen synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34169433419189224714-alpha-glucan branching enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34198353419954120hypothetical protein
341994634200621175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34201203423030291123S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34232593424765150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34257233426214492PTS system glucose subfamily IIA componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
342630034279521653PTS system glucose-like IIB componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34281963429050855transcription antiterminator LicTQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34292713430218948acetyltransferase gnat familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP