Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:3530000 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35301633530924762AraC-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353144935331101662sulfate permease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35337073534579873dihydrodipicolinate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35346883534804117hypothetical protein
35354723536275804hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35366273537376750transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35374603538140681integral membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
353833235384481175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35385063541415291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35416443543150150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354422535443411175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35443993547308291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35475373549043150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355094735510631175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35511213554030291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35542593555765150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355684035569561175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35570143559923291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35601523561658150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
356279235629081175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35629663565875291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35661043567610150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35678893568788900phospholipase patatin familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35688223569640819protein YqfLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35701033570861759hypothetical proteinBLASTP
357108335722761194GTP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3572691357276878tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
357277435728901175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35731653573899735chemotaxis MotB proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35739043574680777chemotaxis protein MotAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35749963575943948L-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3576364357644178tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
357644735765631175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35766913579600291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP