Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:298954 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2989543000211068butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
300407301240834HTH DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301323301619297putative TrpR homolog YerCYecDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3019093032521344phosphoglucosamine mutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
303608304021414hypothetical proteinBLASTP
304556305065510acetolactate synthase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30523930649812603-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3065143069994863-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30716930825110833-isopropylmalate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3082583099161659dihydroxy-acid dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3099563116291674acetolactate synthase large subunit biosynthetic typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3116503126661017ketol-acid reductoisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
312752312871120hypothetical protein
3129513148401890ABC-type multidrugproteinlipid transport system ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3148333165661734ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
316620317063444MarR-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
317452317709258GIY-YIG domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP