Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:420025 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4200254215061482putative extracellular solute-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4215794232161638hypothetical proteinBLASTP
423461424210750ribonuclease PHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
424214424831618non-canonical purine NTP pyrophosphatase RdgBHAM1 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
424843425322480phosphodiesterase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42545142552676tRNA-ProQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42554542561874tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
425646425774129hypothetical protein
42585442593279tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42593742601478tRNA-ProQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42603642610974tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
42612342620179tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42620542628278tRNA-HisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42628442636077tRNA-GlnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42636542644278tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42644942653587tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontology
42653942661577tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42663242670574tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
42671742679478tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42680142687878tRNA-HisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42688342695775tRNA-GlnQuickGO ontology
42697842705578tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42706042714687tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontology
42715042722677tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42724042731374tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42735942743577tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
427921428043123hypothetical protein
428381428827447endothelin-converting enzyme 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
428828428962135endothelin-converting protein 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
429377430883150716S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
43100743108377tRNA-IleQuickGO ontology
431262434171291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
43423143430777tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
434492435439948polysaccharide deacetylase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
435541436230690alkaline phosphatase synthesis transcriptional regulatory proteinphoPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4362354376321398alkaline phosphatase synthesis sensor protein PhoRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4376294390861458putative lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4393744407561383TldD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4407604421031344TldDPmbA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4424574443071851sulfataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
444491445069579hypothetical proteinBLASTP
445100446056957tRNA uridine 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl modification enzyme GidAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
446053446616564putative esteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP