Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:3434000 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
343405234359801929hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34364903437257768thiF domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34378343438526693MTASAH nucleosidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
343858834399401353surface protein PspCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
344011834412691152membrane protein YbiEYbiF familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
344146834459794512OB-fold nucleic acid binding domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
344634134474711131surface protein PspCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
344753534488751341hypothetical protein
34489293449567639hypothetical protein
34497093450176468acetobutylicum phosphotransbutyrylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
345054034516251086surface protein PspCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
345173034534211692hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34535753454555981hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34548653455743879UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
345589734569491053dTDP-glucose 46-dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP