Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:1967106 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
196710619693282223sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19693121970019708regulatory protein VanRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19704051970677273hypothetical proteinBLASTP
19707671971168402hypothetical proteinBLASTP
19713391971494156hypothetical proteinBLASTP
19716941972218525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
197235719735561200dhha1 domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19737531974301549ethanolamine utilization protein EutMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
197432619756511326ethanolamine utilization Fe-S center protein eutQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
197566919771621494ethanolamine utilization protein EutEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19771811977453273ethanolamine utilization protein EutNQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19774631978311849putative phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19783221979143822ethanolamine utilization protein EutJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19791461979802657propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19798281980106279propanediol utilization protein PduAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19802111980489279propanediol utilization protein PduAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19805051981005501putative propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19810691981893825propanediol utilization protein PduBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198224519834081164alcohol dehydrogenase iron-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19839521984257306hypothetical proteinBLASTP
19845301984844315hypothetical protein
198495219863311380sodiumdicarboxylate symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19867631986996234hypothetical proteinBLASTP
19871741987515342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
198775219897101959tetracycline resistance protein TetP contain GTP-ase domainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199000419911191116lysophospholipase l2 pldb hydrolase of alphabeta superfamilyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP