Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010723 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010723:371741 Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was probably isolated from salmon eggs associated with a foodborne case of botulism in Alaska, however the exact details are not available. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371741372322582hypothetical proteinBLASTP
372447372812366cadmium efflux system accessory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3728303750912262cadmium-translocating P-type ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375524376156633redox-sensing transcriptional repressor rexQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3765053772877833-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3773683785071140acyl-coa dehydrogenase short-chain specificQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
378525379307783electron transfer flavoprotein beta subunitFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3793303803371008electron transfer flavoprotein alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3804413812898493-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381449381883435hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3819733828999278-oxoguanine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3830613845451485iron-dependent hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
384744385439696alkaline phosphatase synthesis transcriptional regulatory proteinphoPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3854433868581416two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
386883387722840hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3877433887921050ABC transporter substrate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
389196389480285chaperonin GroSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3894943911161623chaperonin GroLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
391329391733405putative pilinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3920683935221455inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP