Pre_GI Island

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n1_4mer:GRV/n1_4mer:RV = (Global Relative Variance of OU patterns) / (Local Relative Variance of OU patterns)

n0_4mer:D = Distance between local and global OU patterns

n0_4mer:PS = Distance between 2 strands of same DNA molecule

Selected loci indicated by large D, increased GRV associated with decreased RV and moderate increase in PS




NC_010520: Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree, complete genome

NCBI: NC_010520

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree was isolated from duck liver paste during a botulism outbreak at a hotel in the Scottish highlands in 1922. This was the first and worst outbreak of botulism in the United Kingdom (UK). This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.



Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

#StartEndLengthIsland TextGRV_RVDPSNeighboursClusterSub ClusterBLASTNKey Word ConfirmationOther DB ConfirmationDownload Island
11*1926119261Island text6.6963221.024842.0697Neighbours21BLASTN1.gbk
235845*7859942755Island text6.9144623.519345.0146Neighbours21BLASTN+35845.gbk
3121077*14384722771Island text4.6825918.339632.8413Neighbours21BLASTN121077.gbk
4496500*51930622807Island text4.5128221.747941.0068Neighbours21BLASTN+496500.gbk
572531274947124160Island text3.7102414.70730.4787Neighbours21BLASTN+725312.gbk
61146000116884922850Island text2.1588716.217826.1603Neighbours21BLASTN+1146000.gbk
71427981145070222722Island text3.0305317.631332.5253Neighbours21BLASTN+1427981.gbk
81586000160832222323Island text2.66617.847221.4886Neighbours21BLASTN+1586000.gbk
91614333164965435322Island text4.7648217.966928.0525Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 1614333.gbk
102061502208422422723Island text2.8198417.166230.9173Neighbours21BLASTN2061502.gbk
112101515212952928015Island text2.8462519.533437.1684Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 2101515.gbk
122171584219449022907Island text2.5863517.880731.3913Neighbours21BLASTN+2171584.gbk
132585014*262041935406Island text2.7663717.631233.5779Neighbours21BLASTN2585014.gbk
142635750*265654120792Island text3.7292917.724335.6819Neighbours21BLASTN2635750.gbk
152668702269046121760Island text3.3025918.999935.8006Neighbours21BLASTN+2668702.gbk
162807429283431926891Island text1.9587216.436629.76Neighbours21BLASTN+2807429.gbk
172860960288097120012Island text3.5745617.394233.3475Neighbours21BLASTN2860960.gbk
182937981296593527955Island text3.4465118.351537.1238Neighbours21BLASTN2937981.gbk
193120500313949618997Island text2.4866618.154231.4837Neighbours21BLASTN3120500.gbk
203204480*322378019301Island text3.4335518.155435.2311Neighbours21BLASTN3204480.gbk
213526883*355123524353Island text1.5332218.573734.4926Neighbours21BLASTN+3526883.gbk
223580000360470824709Island text2.6452216.533936.4113Neighbours21BLASTN+3580000.gbk
233674883*369898424102Island text2.5436817.290928.2434Neighbours21BLASTNIslandViewer 3674883.gbk
243753875377298819114Island text2.9030218.251532.7791Neighbours21BLASTN3753875.gbk
253788702*382916340462Island text3.4624920.43439.0329Neighbours21BLASTN+3788702.gbk
263837378*385959922222Island text4.2020322.050741.7469Neighbours21BLASTN3837378.gbk
273938490*397609937610Island text2.7302118.358434.6103Neighbours21BLASTN3938490.gbk