Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_010520 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010520:1 Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree was isolated from duck liver paste during a botulism outbreak at a hotel in the Scottish highlands in 1922. This was the first and worst outbreak of botulism in the United Kingdom (UK). This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1413511338chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
161427171104DNA polymerase III beta chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27372943207S4 domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301241061095DNA replication and repair protein RecFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41274390264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
440863211914DNA gyrase B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
634788422496DNA gyrase A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
925810759150216S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1098113882290223S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13976140921175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141001417879tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141801425778tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1445114873423hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1488915410522putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15412165751164iron-sulfur cluster-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16580192612682hypothetical proteinBLASTP