Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010520 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010520:1586000 Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree was isolated from duck liver paste during a botulism outbreak at a hotel in the Scottish highlands in 1922. This was the first and worst outbreak of botulism in the United Kingdom (UK). This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15863731587209837pyridoxine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15874981588136639putative methionine-S-sulfoxide reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15889511589715765peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
158970215915911890peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15917641592261498hypothetical proteinBLASTP
15927001593401702DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15934031594380978sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15944541595209756peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
159519915970071809peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15970761597798723hypothetical proteinBLASTP
159812415991581035hypothetical proteinBLASTP
159956016007381179hemolysinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16008111601629819amino acid ABC transporter amino acid-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16016421602307666amino acid ABC transporter permease protein HisGluGlnArgopine familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16023261603063738polar amino acid uptake family ABC transporter PAAT family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16032001603418219putative DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
160361716048851269D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16051841605807624pyrophosphatase MutTnudix familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16058581606205348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
160655116077141164NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16080981608322225hypothetical proteinBLASTP