Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010520 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010520:121077 Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree was isolated from duck liver paste during a botulism outbreak at a hotel in the Scottish highlands in 1922. This was the first and worst outbreak of botulism in the United Kingdom (UK). This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121077121715639putative zinc-dependent hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1221571252733117isoleucyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
125424126422999transcriptional regulator LacI familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1266381306904053hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1307651318321068putative mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferasemannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1321681334811314hypothetical proteinBLASTP
133486134292807conserved hypothetical protein TIGR00268QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134312135058747hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1352831366651383radical SAM domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1368521381261275putative sugar-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1382271393421116putative mannosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1395061405161011putative spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
140531140725195hypothetical protein
140752141519768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1415321425451014putative spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1427201438471128glycosyl transferase group 1 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP