Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010520 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010520:2668702 Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A3 str. Loch Maree was isolated from duck liver paste during a botulism outbreak at a hotel in the Scottish highlands in 1922. This was the first and worst outbreak of botulism in the United Kingdom (UK). This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
266870226697781077hypothetical proteinBLASTP
267032226717671446amino acid permease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26719022672789888hypothetical proteinBLASTP
267331226743191008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26743332674803471PrdE proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26748172675593777PrdD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26759342676659726D-proline reductase PrdB subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26767352677010276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
267701926791302112putative D-proline reductase PrdA proproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26791522679328177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
267935026804681119putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26811092681771663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
268181126831151305putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26831142683230117hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26837082684235528hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26842402684719480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26851962685624429PrdA domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268565626869661311putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268714226888961755sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268923226904611230hypothetical proteinBLASTP