Pre_GI Island

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n1_4mer:GRV/n1_4mer:RV = (Global Relative Variance of OU patterns) / (Local Relative Variance of OU patterns)

n0_4mer:D = Distance between local and global OU patterns

n0_4mer:PS = Distance between 2 strands of same DNA molecule

Selected loci indicated by large D, increased GRV associated with decreased RV and moderate increase in PS




NC_008261: Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, complete genome

NCBI: NC_008261

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: The species type strain, originally isolated from a human gas gangrene patient. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.



Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

#StartEndLengthIsland TextGRV_RVDPSNeighboursClusterSub ClusterBLASTNKey Word ConfirmationOther DB ConfirmationDownload Island
11*2066720667Island text6.1993125.43342.9693Neighbours21BLASTN1.gbk
264678*10124836571Island text4.5553321.116137.9435Neighbours21BLASTN+64678.gbk
3225425*25641730993Island text3.7687922.58839.3209Neighbours21BLASTN+225425.gbk
4304000*32786723868Island text5.1975824.135240.4833Neighbours21BLASTN+304000.gbk
538129740188720591Island text2.6521216.850129.9001Neighbours21BLASTN381297.gbk
6421000*43770016701Island text2.6751118.3728.9998Neighbours21BLASTN421000.gbk
7551513*57420222690Island text6.8612218.056916.8474Neighbours21BLASTN+551513.gbk
8576923*59692520003Island text2.4514219.575827.9583Neighbours21BLASTN576923.gbk
9676000*70224526246Island text4.6362423.538540.964Neighbours21BLASTN+676000.gbk
1081729584209724803Island text2.5367219.446728.7362Neighbours21BLASTN+817295.gbk
1196797398863520663Island text2.8698219.496126.4463Neighbours21BLASTN+967973.gbk
121048515107289224378Island text2.9580219.819835.4134Neighbours21BLASTN1048515.gbk
131099982112201322032Island text3.2148618.382237.1117Neighbours21BLASTN+1099982.gbk
141249595127220022606Island text1.8196418.309228.1703Neighbours21BLASTN+1249595.gbk
151332864135143618573Island text2.6078918.407534.4195Neighbours21BLASTN1332864.gbk
161787345181038123037Island text3.0429918.455135.9666Neighbours21BLASTN+1787345.gbk
172117207214023523029Island text2.2514917.950534.9007Neighbours21BLASTN+2117207.gbk
182157713*217590318191Island text2.3304718.266732.4583Neighbours21BLASTN2157713.gbk
192481500*250521723718Island text2.3427119.900426.791Neighbours21BLASTN2481500.gbk
202524913*254259917687Island text2.3875118.415632.44Neighbours21BLASTN+2524913.gbk
212614817*263341718601Island text2.5824818.920231.3558Neighbours21BLASTN+2614817.gbk
222708929*273260323675Island text2.6708918.728734.0297Neighbours21BLASTN2708929.gbk
232743942276681822877Island text2.1610716.46126.0933Neighbours21BLASTN2743942.gbk
242770468*279579025323Island text4.2044623.188236.0004Neighbours21BLASTN+2770468.gbk
252920999294008119083Island text2.940418.52231.9649Neighbours21BLASTN+2920999.gbk
262957354*298433226979Island text2.9271719.391433.5303Neighbours21BLASTN+2957354.gbk
273014373*303231317941Island text2.9291918.456128.9225Neighbours21BLASTN+3014373.gbk