Pre_GI Island

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n1_4mer:GRV/n1_4mer:RV = (Global Relative Variance of OU patterns) / (Local Relative Variance of OU patterns)

n0_4mer:D = Distance between local and global OU patterns

n0_4mer:PS = Distance between 2 strands of same DNA molecule

Selected loci indicated by large D, increased GRV associated with decreased RV and moderate increase in PS

NC_008262: Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome

NCBI: NC_008262

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This is a enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

#StartEndLengthIsland TextGRV_RVDPSNeighboursClusterSub ClusterBLASTNKey Word ConfirmationOther DB ConfirmationDownload Island
111259912599Island text4.6287317.14833.2805Neighbours21BLASTN1.gbk
267711*9109923389Island text6.2727421.123138.2697Neighbours21BLASTN+67711.gbk
3101731*12528023550Island text4.5148521.800936.4067Neighbours21BLASTN101731.gbk
4227354*27081243459Island text3.6229419.487532.6391Neighbours21BLASTN+227354.gbk
5297960*32314425185Island text4.0410922.343534.8394Neighbours21BLASTN+297960.gbk
638132340409922777Island text3.102715.588526.2212Neighbours21BLASTN+381323.gbk
7419726*44060220877Island text4.4612816.5423.5412Neighbours21BLASTN+419726.gbk
8654000*67859924600Island text4.7019122.567340.1746Neighbours21BLASTN+654000.gbk
9784878*82991045033Island text2.8582218.266332.5297Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 784878.gbk
1090400092609922100Island text3.6149916.901824.266Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 904000.gbk
111139500116059921100Island text2.8694117.988734.8132Neighbours21BLASTN1139500.gbk
121721496174021318718Island text2.0207916.889626.2334Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 1721496.gbk
131795914181428418371Island text2.2245216.725430.5884Neighbours21BLASTN1795914.gbk
141835613*185504319431Island text2.372917.744833.8257Neighbours21BLASTN1835613.gbk
151950205*196967819474Island text2.9065318.192229.0393Neighbours21BLASTN1950205.gbk
162025699204408118383Island text2.3639317.181427.2079Neighbours21BLASTN2025699.gbk
172150944*216909918156Island text2.4530217.30522.9535Neighbours21BLASTN2150944.gbk
182169262*218972120460Island text2.1781917.099328.4809Neighbours21BLASTN+2169262.gbk
192242432226666224231Island text2.2559915.728429.7113Neighbours21BLASTN2242432.gbk
202348328*236708418757Island text2.0650816.734628.487Neighbours21BLASTN+2348328.gbk
212379144*239845819315Island text3.087916.853136.2407Neighbours21BLASTN2379144.gbk
222433979*246848234504Island text4.1613122.27241.8104Neighbours21BLASTN+2433979.gbk
232498000252144223443Island text1.9016417.576632.7689Neighbours21BLASTN+2498000.gbk
242598920*264903950120Island text3.0147620.598236.4088Neighbours21BLASTN+2598920.gbk
252649289*270467655388Island text3.9349619.130234.2205Neighbours21BLASTN+2649289.gbk
262824503284819823696Island text2.0930616.910929.8636Neighbours21BLASTN+IslandViewer 2824503.gbk