Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_008262 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_008262:2824503 Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This is a enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
282450328266592157phage infection protein putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
282668228288472166phage infection protein putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28294192829757339phnA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
283019228312231032hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28313492831717369hypothetical protein
283349928346081110hypothetical protein
28348572835111255uncharacterized conserved protein YbeA familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28354072835724318phosphotransferase system enzyme II ptcAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
283577428371261353cellobiose phosphotransferase enzyme IIC component-like protein lin2832QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28371472837449303PTS system IIB componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2837508283894414376-phospho-beta-glucosidase bglaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28390942839822729transcriptional regulator RpiR familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28398562840749894sugar kinase putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
284082428418701047Transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
284196928446202652laminarinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28449842845655672hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28459102846137228hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28462302846709480conserved hypothetical protein TIGR00246QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28469552847326372hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28475572848198642hypothetical proteinBLASTP