Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_008262 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_008262:2379144 Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This is a enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237914423803191176S-adenosylmethionine synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2380748238083386tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2380839238091476tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2380940238102586tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2381031238110676tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2381125238120076tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2381205238129086tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2381296238137176tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23815362382168633hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23822742382804531putative sporulation protein YyaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238284323838801038mbl proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23839712384222252stage III sporulation protein DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23842982385068771peptidase putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238517823862001023stage II sporulation protein DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238631223875771266UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23876002388244645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23884192388820402ATP synthase F1 epsilon subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238883623902331398ATP synthase F1 beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23902472391098852ATP synthase F1 gamma subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
239116323926711509ATP synthase F1 alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23926822393221540ATP synthase F1 delta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23932242393688465ATP synthase F0 B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23938022394020219ATP synthase F0 C subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23940812394737657ATP synthase F0 A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23948142395176363hypothetical proteinBLASTP
239585823970361179acetyl-CoA acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
239730423984581155UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP