Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_008262 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_008262:2242432 Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This is a enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224243222459473516pyruvate-flavodoxin oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22460522246477426flavodoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224668422477571074UDP-N-acetylglucosamine--N-acetylmuramyl- pentapeptide pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22479432248122180small acid-soluble spore proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224845622502341779single-stranded-DNA-specific exonuclease RecJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225024622514571212peptidase M16 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22516702252245576DJ-1 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225225722551962940DNA topoisomerase GyrAParC subunit familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225521022571561947DNA topoisomerase GyrBParE subunit familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225714622582161071hypothetical proteinBLASTP
225846222598621401glycosyl transferase group 2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
226057622618141239putative UV damage endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22618992262507609putative sporulation protein YtaFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
226267622638451170alcohol dehydrogenase short-chain familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
226408222655721491amino acid permease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22657692266662894ROK family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP