Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_008262 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_008262:297960 Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This is a enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2979602991141155ISCpe2 transposase orfBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
299341299823483transcriptional regulator CarD familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3002783014141137mechanosensitive ion channel family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301411302034624copper homeostasis protein CutC putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
302918303595678uracil-DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30962330969876tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
309812310279468AhpCTSA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
311887312633747PPIC-type PPIASE domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
313090313902813teichoic acid translocation permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3139203150921173teichoic acid translocation ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3151063163891284teichuronic acid biosynthesis glycosyl transferase putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3164083176431236teichuronic acid biosynthesis glycosyl transferase putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3176573188381182teichoic acid ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3189533203861434teichuronic acid biosynthesis glycosyl transferase putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
320522321175654haloacid dehalogenase IA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3212573226061350Hydrogenase subunit ferredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322745322891147hypothetical protein
32306932314476tRNA-ProQuickGO ontologyBLASTP