Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_008262 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_008262:2169262 Clostridium perfringens SM101, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This is a enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. C. perfringens have been developed and the species became a model organism in clostridial genetic studies. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21692622170179918glutaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21704192170934516hypothetical proteinBLASTP
217101721722521236aminopeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217244521734941050hypothetical proteinBLASTP
217351121745211011hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21754322175722291hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21758472176536690radical SAM domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21765542177111558probable membrane protein STY3230 putativeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21771302178110981nucleoside hydrolase IUNH familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21786212179409789conserved hypothetical protein TIGR00486QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21794092180098690hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21801122180999888hypothetical proteinBLASTP
218123521823351101RNA polymerase sigma factor RpoDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218236221841491788DNA primaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218431821853461029deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218554621866251080hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21867022187385684transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218738921886301242permease putative domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218862721897211095permease putative domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP