Pre_GI Island

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n1_4mer:GRV/n1_4mer:RV = (Global Relative Variance of OU patterns) / (Local Relative Variance of OU patterns)

n0_4mer:D = Distance between local and global OU patterns

n0_4mer:PS = Distance between 2 strands of same DNA molecule

Selected loci indicated by large D, increased GRV associated with decreased RV and moderate increase in PS

NC_003366: Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

NCBI: NC_003366

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

#StartEndLengthIsland TextGRV_RVDPSNeighboursClusterSub ClusterBLASTNKey Word ConfirmationOther DB ConfirmationDownload Island
112067020670Island text5.8914623.978641.4297Neighbours21BLASTN1.gbk
264908*11367548768Island text5.6231322.473741.4194Neighbours21BLASTN+64908.gbk
312878314709918317Island text2.6936517.488434.3465Neighbours21BLASTN128783.gbk
425548029721641737Island text2.7088720.147330.7128Neighbours21BLASTN+255480.gbk
533250035509922600Island text5.7567122.98341.6837Neighbours21BLASTN+332500.gbk
6461602*48435522754Island text4.925217.731627.6343Neighbours21BLASTN+461602.gbk
761379863609922302Island text5.0487117.141922.4144Neighbours21BLASTN613798.gbk
872885975493526077Island text4.8488322.195440.7719Neighbours21BLASTN+728859.gbk
984200086047418475Island text2.6224517.406432.6045Neighbours21BLASTN842000.gbk
10863437*88249419058Island text2.7271217.60325.5299Neighbours21BLASTN+863437.gbk
1198110599989218788Island text3.6282117.327327.4516Neighbours21BLASTN+981105.gbk
121013773103624122469Island text2.2840817.467231.6726Neighbours21BLASTN+1013773.gbk
131091766111615524390Island text3.2181620.345937.2649Neighbours21BLASTN1091766.gbk
141122654114059917946Island text3.1472617.631336.8924Neighbours21BLASTN1122654.gbk
151427785145027522491Island text2.357215.950336.3138Neighbours21BLASTN+1427785.gbk
161901898192440722510Island text2.1450216.971733.579Neighbours21BLASTN+1901898.gbk
172057656*208209924444Island text2.6190817.637432.0136Neighbours21BLASTN2057656.gbk
182106937212459917663Island text2.3362718.111630.2656Neighbours21BLASTN2106937.gbk
192143173216513121959Island text2.2387117.911834.7397Neighbours21BLASTN2143173.gbk
202266757228574918993Island text2.0045917.955623.9737Neighbours21BLASTN2266757.gbk
212286083*230615620074Island text2.3044117.330428.7672Neighbours21BLASTN2286083.gbk
222356148238179725650Island text2.2387815.451730.162Neighbours21BLASTN2356148.gbk
232494907251858823682Island text2.5578717.546233.8592Neighbours21BLASTN2494907.gbk
242556457257959923143Island text4.8623622.490140.0347Neighbours21BLASTN2556457.gbk
252731995*276168829694Island text2.8587518.621436.0318Neighbours21BLASTN+2731995.gbk
262788268280968621419Island text2.5396216.680924.8447Neighbours21BLASTN+2788268.gbk