Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_003366 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_003366:461602 Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4616024625619606-phosphofructokinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4626554640581404pyruvate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
464641464997357hypothetical proteinBLASTP
465305466102798probable dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4662774678121536cardiolipin synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4684394700011563probable transcription regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4701314714981368RNA methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
472441473340900hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4735204774253906hypothetical proteinBLASTP
477962478819858probable transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4790084802761269hypothetical proteinBLASTP
480350481276927probable ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
481293482120828probable suger ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4821484843552208alpha-galactosidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP