Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_003366 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_003366:2057656 Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
205765620602952640alanyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
206088820619251038hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20619512062424474hypothetical proteinBLASTP
206271320637651053tRNA 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate-methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20638172064245429probable nitrogen fixation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
206424820654441197iron-sulfur cofactor synthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20654372065823387hypothetical proteinBLASTP
206602920672551227hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20674782068377900hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20685632068991429hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20689942069965972molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207006920710821014molybdopterin biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20712012071749549molybdopterin-guanine dinucleotide biosynthesis protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207184220730621221molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20734012073883483molybdopterin-guanine dinucleotide biosynthesis protein BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207397420751971224nitrate reductase NADH oxydase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20751992075612414nitrate reductase electron transfer subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207562520777032079nitrate reductase catalytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20779902078418429hypothetical protein
207863920799161278hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20799482080928981hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20811742082049876D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP