Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_003366 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_003366:1013773 Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
101377310151281356hypothetical proteinBLASTP
101535710177712415beta-galactosidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10185651019518954hypothetical proteinBLASTP
102004110218611821probable ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
102186110236511791probable ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10238681024365498hypothetical proteinBLASTP
102437410260021629hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10263691026653285probable transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10267711027169399probable arsenate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
102718610285021317hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10286881029356669two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
102935310303631011two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10306471030814168hypothetical protein
10309431031356414hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10316151031773159hypothetical protein
10317791032390612hypothetical protein
103277810343521575alpha-clostripainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10354471036241795hypothetical protein