Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_003366 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_003366:2106937 Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21069372107452516stage III sporulation protein SpoABQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21075992108483885stage III sporulation protein AAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21086822109044363hypothetical protein
21091582109715558elongation factor PQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21098862110233348hypothetical protein
21102302110670441hypothetical protein
21106302111280651hypothetical protein
21112162111626411hypothetical protein
21116132111903291hypothetical protein
21120382112550513hypothetical protein
21125702112998429hypothetical protein
211299121140101020probable fimbrial assembly proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
211399721153851389probable type IV pilus assembly proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
211548521165161032hypothetical protein
21165332117351819diaminopimelate epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
211744321191701728probable fibronectin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
211928021204071128hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21204272120963537pyrimidine regulatory protein PyrRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21209672121887921hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21220252122651627probable cell-division initiation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21226642123425762probable cell-division proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21234272123882456hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21238952124554660hypothetical proteinBLASTP