Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_003366 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_003366:1091766 Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10917661092416651hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10925071092926420hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10932921093546255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
10934621093917456hypothetical proteinBLASTP
109418510953151131NADPH-dependent butanol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10956691096019351propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10960231096457435propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10964751097050576two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
109705410984811428two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
109869111001241434ethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
110014311015101368ethanolamine ammonia lyase heavy chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11015271102414888ethanolamine ammonia-lyase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11024361103089654ethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11031021103887786propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
110388711053651479probable alcohol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11057211106011291propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11060501106865816ethanolamine utilization cobalamin adenosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11068751107510636probable propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11077161108474759hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11086221108894273ethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11088961109450555propanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
110950111105981098ethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11106011111074474ethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11114421111918477gluthatione peroxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11123511112896546hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11131881113499312hypothetical proteinBLASTP
111381311154531641hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11155351116155621hypothetical proteinBLASTP