Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_003366 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_003366:2356148 Clostridium perfringens str. 13, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium perfringens; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a type A isolate from the soil. It can establish gas gangrene in a murine experimental model. Causative agent of gas gangrene. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism is a causative agent of a wide spectrum of necrotic enterotoxicoses. It also causes such animal diseases as lamb dysentery, ovine enterotoxemia (struck), pulpy kidney disease in lambs and other enterotoxemias in lambs and calves. It is commonly found in the environment (soil, sewage) and in the animal and human gastrointestinal tract as a member of the normal microflora. It is a fast growing (generation time 8-10 min) anaerobic flesh-eater. Active fermentative growth is accompanied by profuse generation of molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It is also oxygen tolerant which makes it an easy object to work with in laboratories. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. Known isolates belong to five distinct types (A, B, C, D, and E) that are distinguished based on the specific extracellular toxins they produce. All types produce the alpha toxin (phospholipase C). Type A strains that cause gas gangrene produce alpha toxin, theta (hemolysin), kappa (collagenase), mu (hyaluronidase), nu (DNAse) and neuraminidase which are all the enzymatic factors aiding the bacterium in invading and destruction of the host tissues. Type C strains produce alpha toxin, beta toxin and prefringolysin enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, Type B strains produce beta toxin, types B and D produce the pore forming epsilon toxin and type E strains produce iota toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
235614823596633516pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23597682360193426flavodoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236040023614731074N-acetylglucosaminyl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23616582361837180small acid-soluble spore protein C1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236195923637371779probable single-strand DNA-specific exonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236374923649601212probable zinc proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236517423657555824-methyl-5beta-hydroxyethyl-thiazole monophosphate synthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236576123687002940DNA topoisomerase IV subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236871423706661953DNA topoisomerase IV subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237065023717201071probable ATP GTP binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237196523733651401hypothetical proteinBLASTP
237421723754551239probable UV endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23755402376148609hypothetical proteinBLASTP
237631723774861170hypothetical proteinBLASTP
237773123792091479hypothetical proteinBLASTP
237955723817972241alpha-glucosidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP