Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:2185704 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218570421867651062hypothetical proteinBLASTP
218694821884111464putative beta-lactamaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21884642188595132hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21886502188787138hypothetical protein
21891382189440303hypothetical protein
21894922189794303PTS system LactoseCellobiose specific IIA subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2189819219113213146-phospho-beta-glucosidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
219123221924821251PTS system lactosecellobiose family IIC componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21925302192838309PTS system diacetylchitobiose-specific IIB componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21933832194093711glycerol uptake facilitator proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21942262195383115813-propanediol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21955162195941426DhaG proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21959612196473513ATPcobIalamin adenosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21964952196854360glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
219685421986921839glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21987202199142423coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21991642199739576propanediol utilization dehydratase medium subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
219975822014221665glycerol dehydratase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22017312202468738DNA-bindng response regulator AraC familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
220248422037251242sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
220406322070923030hypothetical proteinBLASTP
220722222083641143divergent AAA domain familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22085262208813288DNA polymerase beta domain protein regionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22088192209256438putative nucleotidyltransferase substrate binding protein familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2209432221026883725-diketo-d-gluconic acid reductase aQuickGO ontologyBLASTP