Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:2067015 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
206701520686131599site-specific recombinasesQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20689412069117177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
206929120704211131ethanolaminepropanediol utilization propanol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20706622071012351ethanolaminepropanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20710202071469450ethanolamine utilization protein EutPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20715712072146576two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207213920735481410two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207373220751651434reactivating factor for ethanolamine ammonia lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207518320765471365ethanolamine ammonia lyase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20765602077441882ethanolamine ammonia-lyase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20774612078114654ethanolamine utilization protein EutLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20781252078826702ethanolaminepropanediol utilisation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207882920802981470ethanolaminepropanediol utilisation aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20803942080681288ethanolaminepropanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20808082081569762ethanolaminepropanediol utilization cobalamin adenosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20815822082211630propanediol utilization phosphotransacylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20822532082978726ethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20829912083263273ethanolaminepropanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20832562083807552ethanolaminepropanediol utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208381920849101092ethanolamine utilization protein EutHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20849122085385474ethanolamine utilization protein EutQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20859012086422522transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208680120879761176peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208801120895491539aminobenzoyl-glutamate transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208958120907831203aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP