Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:405058 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4050584065571500sigma-54 dependent regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4070984085071410dihydropyrimidinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
408528408995468glutathione-regulated potassium-efflux system proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4090914104161326putative peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4104914116721182formyl-CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
411706412152447hypothetical proteinBLASTP
412164412577414putative acyl-CoA hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4127734139901218DNA repair exonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4139804175103531exonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4176384189721335NaH antiporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
419160420056897putative CnaB-type proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4201074219631857methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
422448423329882L-serine dehydratase iron-sulfur-dependent subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP