Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:1 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113201320chromosomal replication initiator proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
146026681209DNA polymerase III beta chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28053011207putative RNA-binding mediating proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
302941441116DNA replication and repair proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
414560461902DNA gyrase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
606684922427DNA gyrase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
85618857297hypothetical protein
88579117261hypothetical protein
91359446312anti-sigma-B factor antagonistQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
94509857408anti-sigma-B factor serine-protein kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
985710630774RNA polymerase sigma-B factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1071612347163216S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
123721244473tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1282315775295323S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15848159641175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1607316600528putative small-molecule-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1661217493882putative mechanosensitive ion channel proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17952192231272seryl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1954419999456putative cytosineadenosine deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
200002008889tRNA-SerQuickGO ontology
20470221071638DNA polymerase III subunit gammatauQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2216622516351hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2252923128600recombination proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23561247661206putative glycosyl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2518026938175916S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2703529985295123S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30114302301175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
302373030872tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
303183040386tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
304193049173tRNA-MetQuickGO ontology
305023057372tRNA-GluQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
305863065671tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
306653073773tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
307463081974tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
308323090372tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontology
309213100282tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
310153109581tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontology
311283120174tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
312123128473tRNA-GlnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
313753146086tRNA-SerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314673153973tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315493162274tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
316373171074tRNA-MetQuickGO ontology
317373181074tRNA-ProQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
318213189474tRNA-HisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319063197873tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319893205971tRNA-CysQuickGO ontology
320693214072tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
321493223486tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322503232273tRNA-MetQuickGO ontology
323333240472tRNA-GluQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
324173248771tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
324963256873tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
325773265074tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
326633273472tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontology
327523283382tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
328463292681tRNA-LeuQuickGO ontology
329533302472tRNA-GlyQuickGO ontology
330523312574tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
331383321073tRNA-GlnQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
332223329473tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
333003338586tRNA-SerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
333923346473tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
334743354774tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
335623363574tRNA-MetQuickGO ontology
336563372974tRNA-HisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
337413381373tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
338243389471tRNA-CysQuickGO ontology
339053397874tRNA-ArgQuickGO ontology
339943406673tRNA-ValQuickGO ontology
3414534558414hypothetical proteinBLASTP