Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015417 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015417:137272 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 plasmid p1BKT015925, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
136289137275987hypothetical protein
1372721410393768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
141052141846795phage-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
141950142369420death on curing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
142379142573195hypothetical protein
142827143324498hypothetical proteinBLASTP
143327143593267hypothetical protein
143781144170390hypothetical protein
144148144402255hypothetical protein
144579144926348hypothetical protein
144937145161225hypothetical protein
1457301507094980phage-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1510801524351356phage-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
152504152971468hypothetical protein
152971153531561hypothetical protein
153623153925303hypothetical protein
154115154309195DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
154459154818360hypothetical proteinBLASTP
154832155068237hypothetical protein
155292155744453hypothetical protein
155744156412669hypothetical proteinBLASTP
156737157255519hypothetical proteinBLASTP